Besides technical developments, methodological developments are also ranked highly. Examples are the nuclear lighthouse effect [1], 'Kß' spectroscopy, deep inelastic scattering and synchrotron radiation based perturbed angular correlation (SRPAC) spectroscopy. The latter three techniques will be presented and discussed in the following contributions.

[1] R. Röhlsberger et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 47601 (2001).